Friday, 20 October 2017

Advice on Fuel Tank Removal

If you are weighing up the options of removing your fuel tank to replace it then there is a significantly large chance that yours has become outdated and turned into a safety hazard. Removing a fuel tank can appear quite daunting, and for good reason. Something that was once an incredibly useful piece of machinery), providing warmth from heating fuel in North Wales based homes, has become quite the burden. The first thing that you should be aware of is that there is no need to complete this arduous task by yourself.
Some more experienced people could quite possibly complete this task without the help of another person with any industrial science background, but it is not recommended. You always have the option of calling one of the highly qualified and experienced professionals in the area that provide quality fuel oil services. They should have an expert knowledge on the home heating system that you are using, and with the fuel tank you are wanting removed.
Firstly, any heating fuel left over in the tank of pipes should be pumped out to avoid any form of serious hazard. The tank should then be dismantled safely and securely and removed from the area. There should be as little stress involved as possible, as the removal of a heating system fuel tank is not something that should take up a vast amount of your valuable time, especially with the assistance of experienced professionals.
If you do acquire the assistance of experienced professionals, this will become an expense. But a reliable and helpful fuel service company will happily answer your questions or queries about fuel tank removal and home heating systems. They will certainly insist that the safe removal of an outdated fuel tank is a safety precaution that simply cannot be avoided.

It is widely considered that a 20 year old, (or more), fuel tank is out of date and will need replacing. You definitely do not want to delay something that could become a potential hazard, and if you are inexperienced you most certainly do not want to injure yourself or any else, so contact the skilled fuel service companies in your local area for invaluable assistance.

Thursday, 19 October 2017

What Is Tapping AFM-IR?

A diagram depicting the basics of AFM-IR functionality,
 courtesy of Anasys Instruments.
Nanoscale Infrared Spectroscopy is one of the most fascinating aspects of surface science, and Tapping AFM-IR is a subject which is very commonly being mentioned within it. A development and innovation of the very well respected Anasys Instruments, Tapping AFM-IR is widely considered one of the very most advanced developments in Nanoscale Infrared Technology, thanks to the impressive ability to provide superior spatial resolution for chemical imagery and overall improvement on historic methods.

In short, Tapping AFM-IR is much more accurate, much quicker, and much more gentle than previous methods, showing marked improvement in absolutely all ways when compared with historic methods. Tapping AFM-IR is a large benefit to research, and has overcome older methods, rendering them entirely obsolete.

This in turn extends the applications of Nanoscale Infrared Spectroscopy by removing the limitations it has historically suffered. As such, this refreshed way of doing things is considered to have opened up Nanoscale Infrared Spectroscopy to a far broader sample of experimentation. Essentially, Tapping AFM IR addresses a gigantic range of material types, and extends the application of IR Spectroscopy to life sciences, nanoparticles, and the imaging of soft polymer materials when before it simply wasn’t viable.

The added viability to the testing of these materials thanks to Tapping AFM-IR is simply unparalleled. Add the fact that resonance-enhanced AFM-IR has proven monolayer sensitivity, enabling chemical analysis on the thinnest of surface layers. Laboratories favour Tapping AFM-IR because chemical imaging speed is also increased by 10 times, without any loss of performance or accuracy whatsoever. Essentially, with this method, high resolution imaging is much quicker. When High res is simply not needed, the power of Tapping AFM-IR can be utilised to collect data faster.

Tapping AFM-IR today is one of the most utilized imaging modes throughout the AFM community, thanks to increased accuracy, faster times, as well as creating a whole range of applications which simply were not possible before it. As such, the technology has become largely supported by the community, with operator training kept at an absolute minimum.

Time to data has never been quicker, or easier, and this technology is entirely and utterly here to stay with Tapping AFM-IR being utilised by a large amount of research facilities, laboratories, and academic institutions worldwide.

Wednesday, 18 October 2017

What Is Depth Conversion?

Depth Conversion is a topic which has forever been integral to the oil and gas community. Without it taking up an important part in the much wider Seismic Reflection method, it simply would not be possible to dig deep into the ground in order to obtain oils and gases from reservoirs.

Likewise, without Depth Conversion, it would be impossible to even locate these hidden oil and gas reservoirs in the ground beneath us.  There’s drilling lots and lots of holes, yes – but how would you know where to drill? How would you know how deep to go? Essentially, the act of setting up an oil rig is something which demands the investment of millions upon millions, so it is very important that the process is started somewhere on the right track and you're not blindly feeling around in the dark.

There's the very obvious financial implications to consider, but there's something even more important - the safety of your workers. Different rocks require different methods to get through, and using the wrong drills on the wrong kind of rock can have disastrous effects. Furthermore, it's truly imperative to know just where the lay of the land lies.  

The process of Depth conversion is all in aid of generating a full 3D model of the ground below in an area – a cross section of what is beneath our feet with accurate measurement. Initially, a geology company will use acoustic methods in order to look at what is beneath us. While indeed it’s much more complex than this – the bare bones of the procedure involves a machine is set up to blast an acoustic tone down into the ground. Depending on the types of rock below, the sound will be carried in a differing way. For instance, a porus rock will carry the sound much more differently than a denser rock – and as the sound returns, the volume of rocks below will mean that it will take differing amount of time in order to return.

What happens then is that this data is put into Depth Conversion Software, and a series of equations are employed to interrogate this data in order to eventually come out with a Depth Conversion model or velocity model – a 3D model which contains empirical knowledge of the velocities of which the rocks in area are arranged.   

Friday, 6 October 2017

The Ups and Downs of Oil and Gas Pricing and What it Means

Oil and Gas Pricing is a field which not only effects of the oil and gas industry by means of exploration, development, recovery and industry, but affects all manner of things. Historically, countries, banks, and everything in-between have used oil and gas inventory resources in a similar way to gold – as hedges which are intended to offset potential losses or gains which are occurred in day to day trading.

Essentially, a hedge is designed to be a buffer, allowing banks and countries alike to have a little stability and something to fall back on, should the worst happen. Oil, alike gold, has been used for risk management purposes since time immemorial – though of recent times, hedging as risk management with oil has proved an extremely poor idea. Oversupply has been rife throughout the oil and gas industry, and lack of agreement throughout oil producing countries have been commonplace.

Saudi Arabia and Russia in particular have ceased to comply with OPEC instruction to limit production of oil, and as these oil-rich countries produce from their own reserves, oil prices throughout 2015 have fell rapidly, to a ten-year low of $26.55 on January the 20th, 2016. This has since recovered in April 2016 – when oil and gas prices rose above the $45/barrel of crude oil mark – which, while still below average, is far more characteristic of the oil and gas prices mark before 2015.

Oil and Gas Pricing is imperative for a number of businesses and of course the world’s economy, as large players such as countries and multinational banks are still deep into hedging – preferring not to liquidate these investments at rough seas, for a guaranteed loss.

While indeed it has been argued that Russia and Saudi Arabia’s noncompliance with OPEC and subsequent overproduction of crude oil, and bloating of the market forcing pricing downward has made Western economies rather strong as oil importers, (after all, low prices are better for the customer!) but exporting nations such as Korea and China have suffered in response.

Friday, 22 September 2017

Nanoindenters : How Do They Work?

Nanoindentation Testing is part of the surface sciences and known for being integral to biological materials classification. With very real application in biomedical research, nanoindentation is an important advancement in the biomedical engineering sciences, and the usage of nanoindentation has ensured that truly innovative materials have been created in order to replace human tissue.

But how exactly can a nanoindenter develop new tissues? Nanoindentation is the process of testing factors in materials such as lifespan, resistance to inflammations and bacteria, biocompatibility and of course the mechanical properties of a material.

Doing so requires the application of nanoindentation and a nanoindenter to properly examine the mechanical properties of these materials and compare them to human tissue. This is done at a molecular level through nanoindentation. A nanoindenter is an astonishingly complex piece of kit on the inside, able to percept the activity of cells in infected tissues. Yet what exactly is different about an infected cell compared to a healthy one? A number of things, really –  but typically an infected cell will be much stiffer than a healthy cell. This feature is what can be detected with the usage of a nanoindenter.

The problem of creating a suitable replacement for human tissue is a daunting one. Classed as a complex class of materials, human tissue tends to be much softer than most things, yet human tissue has an elasticity which is normally unassociated with its other features.

Compared to commonly tested materials, human tissue is characteristic of having complicated structures of cells, which make up each of human tissues’ characteristic features. By examining these features closely with the usage of nanoindentation techniques, scientists can learn more about human tissue in order to create a viable replacement.

Human tissue is but one of many challenges which can be solved with nanoindentation techniques. There are a wealth of materials that mankind seeks to create, but even with that considered, there is  possibly nothing more complex than what is around us in the natural world.

The challenge of finding a suitable replacement for human tissue is not without its pitfalls, but with the usage of nanoindentation techniques, advancements in the field are frequent and with research, viable replacements are on the horizon.

Wednesday, 13 September 2017

India Is Becoming the First Country To Go Fully LED

India is becoming the first country in the world to utilise the power and reap the benefits of LED Lighting efficiency, as well as becoming a global world leader in reduced C02 emissions. India’s Power Minister Piyush Goyal stated that the country hopes to use LED Lighting such as Energy Efficient LED Strip Lights and LED Rope Lights for Outdoor Use for all of the country’s lighting needs by 2019, which will help the nation greatly reduce the global burden placed on the earth by C02 emissions – a figure calculated at 2.7 crore tonnes of C02 every year.

This proposal comes alongside Piyush Goyal’s proposals to make all houses in India electrified before 2022, and make the proposed Indian bullet train affordable to members of the public with competitive pricing promised.

India’s stance on renewables is well and truly admirable, and it couldn’t have come at a better time. Climate change is a topic which is prevailing almost everywhere you look in recent years, and as more and more countries are starting to stop and take notice of the effects of climate change, India’s decision has been welcomed by both scientists and environmental awareness groups.

This also holds a massive improvement for India’s infrastructure – utilisation of LED Lighting throughout the country means that an average of 7,725 MW will be saved in peak demand, further strengthening India’s power grids although the country has a very high population.

This decision has likely been made much easier by the falling prices of LED Lighting in recent years, thanks to increased production by larger companies such as Panasonic and Sony, and investment into research and development of LED Lighting which has led to very many improvements which meant that LED Lighting is the favoured choice of all manner of environments – Commercial and residential facilities can experience reduced energy costs, greater efficiency and a range of features such as smart lighting which simply isn’t possible with older lighting technologies such as CFL and Halogen bulbs.

Friday, 8 September 2017

Seismic Inversion Package With Simulated Annealing And Coloured Inversion Covered

An example of absolute impedance output from SA Inversion
through InSeis.
Equipoise Software are a London based software company which are a sister company of the very well respected ERC Equipoise, and are very well known for the Petrel / IHS Kingdom plugin Velit, of which boasts a number of features to vastly decrease uncertainty.

Velit is industry standard software, and reduced uncertainty, more efficient workflows and of course Velit’s advanced library of depth conversion techniques have cemented the plugin’s relevance to modern day geophysics as well as petrophysics.

Off the back of the advances made with Velit, Equipoise Software have another plugin which is making headway in the field of seismic inversion. InSeis is a plugin which is intended for usage within Petrel as well as IHS Kingdom, and is an excellent solution for seismic inversion. In today’s world, seismic inversion is a far cry from mostly optional exploration tool which has took a back seat compared to depth conversion. Nowadays, seismic inversion is useful for obtaining far more accurate interpretations and better estimations of reservoir properties.

InSeis is a neat little tool which covers very many forms of seismic inversion, most notably Coloured Inversion and Simulated Annealing Inversion, for every situation. Coloured Inversion on InSeis is rather quick but the results are still comprehensive – easily comparable to far more time and labour consuming sparse spike methods of seismic inversion. Bed resolution is enhanced, as well as minor faulting, fracture zones and discontinuities are better highlighted- which for some projects can be very helpful, offering far more of an insight to the geologist.

Simulated Annealing is made simple in InSeis thanks to the plugin’s model driven approach, which entirely and automatically removes the seismic wavelet, as well as providing an output of high resolution relative impedance, as well as absolute. Since InSeis’ Simulated Annealing is easy to parameterise and run, it completely avoids the problem of needing to be trapped at local minima by using global optimisation.

Inseis is an absolutely revolutionary project, which provides an excellent toolkit for geologists and geophysicists which place value in getting as much of the picture as possible.