Tuesday, 28 May 2013

The History of Wireline Logging in a Nutshell

Wireline logging is an industry specific term used commonly in the oil and gas industry, which involves lowering a logging device attached to a wire line into a borehole or oil well - to measure the properties of the rock and fluids of the formations.

The measurements that are obtained from this process are then interpreted and used to help determine the depths and zones where oil and gas will be expected to be found.

Wireline logging has a history that goes back over 85 years ago, where two brothers; Conrad and Marcel Schumberger ran what is considered to be the very first wire line log at the Pechelbronn Oil Company in France.

The logging process was a success and the two brothers named their new technique an electric survey. A few years later and the term ‘well log’ was being used in the USA. Wire line logging also became used, as the logging tool is lowered through the oil well or borehole on the end of a wireline.

Wireline logging tools are typically cylindrical in shape and range from a narrow diameter of around one and a half inches, up to around five inches. There are in fact three different basic types of wire line logging tools:

1. The first type measures the spontaneous potential, where the difference in voltage between an electrode in the wireline logging tool - where it is operating in the oil well or borehole, and another located on the surface. This allows the measuring of temperature and pressure, due to the natural radiation coming from the natural isotopes.

2. The second type of wireline logging tool has a source of excitation or stimulation as well as a sensor. The sensing systems in this type can be magnetic resonance, inductive, electric, and acoustic or other methods.

3. This tool is used to perform a kind of mechanical manoeuvre, where the kind of wire logging tool can retrieve rock samples at various depths to get the data for scientists to physically examine. When the formations are examined closely and carefully, you are able to draw some conclusions regarding depths, before continuing with the extraction process.

There are a number of electric log tools available for use, which can be categorised whether they are open hole logs or cased hole logs. Electric logs are defined through the physical properties that the tool measures, when the specific resistance of the rock and fluids are measured it is resistivity log. When the rock has its level of pore percentage measured, porosity logs technologies are used that are based on sound waves or nuclear reactions.

Wireline logging allows the acquisition of valuable data at a fast rate and over a wide range of depths, allowing fast and accurate decisions to be made regarding drilling, based on the information obtained. Understanding the physical properties of the oil well allows the proper management methods and techniques over its lifetime – and wire line logging makes that possible.

Friday, 3 May 2013

Why Should I Use Low Smoke Halogen Free Cables?

Have you ever been wondering whether you need low smoke halogen free cable for your applications? Here you will find out all of the key information surrounding low smoke zero halogen cables, their advantages, disadvantages and common uses.

First off, what are Halogens?

On the periodic table of elements, there are specific groups that several elements belong to, with halogens such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine making up the group. Halogens are found in many of the products and applications that we come across in day to day life – for example; fluoride in almost all toothpaste, chlorine used in pools and iodine something commonly found in medicine cabinets.

Other Halogen Uses

Beyond our everyday contact with halogens, there are also numerous other ways in which halogens are used. Halogens are found in cable jackets as a flame retardant, which includes PVC (polyvinylchloride). Coincidently, this flame retardant chemical can cause some health problems for people - although halogen compounds keep from catching and spreading fire, they release hazardous gases if the cable does come into contact with flames. Carcinogenic substances such as Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Nitro Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and dioxins are all toxic chemicals that can be formed when these halogenated compounds are burned. These gaseous compounds are not only hazardous when they have burned and are in the air, after coming into contact with water they can condense into caustic acids.

A Safe Alternative

Low Smoke Low Halogen is a very good description of what these cables can actually do. These cables are much safer during a time where flame comes into direct contact to the cable jacketing, ensuring that very little smoke and no toxic gasses like a PVC cable would. Low smoke zero halogen cable is the safe choice for locations in which there is a fire potential and the potential for people to be near the fire. Low smoke halogen free cable also complies with the European Union’s Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive and similar North American safety and environmental standards.

For more information on LSZH cables, please consult: http://lapplimited.lappgroup.com/products/low-smoke-halogen-free-cable.html